The planning fallacy is a phenomenon in which predictions about how much time will be needed to complete a future task display an optimism bias and underestimate the time needed. This phenomenon sometimes occurs regardless of the individual's knowledge that past tasks of a similar nature have taken longer to complete than generally planned. The planning fallacy was first proposed by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky in According to this definition, the planning fallacy results in not only time overruns, but also cost overruns and benefit shortfalls. In a study, 37 psychology students were asked to estimate how long it would take to finish their senior theses. The average estimate was
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There are many forms of academic writing , but an academic paper should always meet three basic criteria. It should be written by scholars for other scholars, focus on issues that concern the academic community, and contain an informed argument. Other characteristics of academic writing include a formal writing style, specific vocabulary terms, and the use of the third-person perspective. There are four general types of academic texts. A descriptive text describes a phenomenon, person, or fact. An analytical paper shows the relationships between different phenomena.
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